Hacking counters that neither the notion of incommensurable schemes nor that of radical mistranslation (“Was There Ever a Radical Mistranslation?”) is well-founded. Ian Hacking’s newest book is many things at once: an anthology of occasional pieces, a reflection on the uses of history in philosophy, a treatment of the work of Michel Foucault, a contraction and extension of ideas in Hacking’s earlier work. —Alan D. Schrift, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews For many, the Enlightenment is a philosophical outlook that emerges from the critical philosophy of Kant, which established the fundamental conditions of human reason, which justify claims of knowledge. Similarly, many will be interested in how Nichols reads Foucault along with Heidegger, showing how each helps us to understand the other. Reviewed by Alan D. Schrift, Grinnell College. Paul Rabinow later organized the three volumes of the Essential Works and The Emergence of Probability. ", The Political Ontology of Martin Heidegger, Edited by Lars Rensmann and Samir Gandesha, Deconstruction and the Remainders of Phenomenology, Edited by Iain Macdonald and Krzysztof Ziarek, Heidegger, Foucault, and the Politics of Historical Ontology, Philosophy / Poststructuralism and Phenomenology. Such a style is rather to be conceived as a Comtian “positivity”, or a Foucaultian “discourse”. The point is made here again in terms both analytic and continental. In the latter book, Hacking proposed that the modern schism between subjective or personalistic probability, and … The historical turn follows from two further claims: concepts are to be identified with the conditions licensing the use of particular words; but there can be rifts in the development of our knowledge that occlude the original conditions on proper use. It is too self-important by half. I have always disliked the word ‘ontology’. There is much to learn from Nichols' account of Foucault's historical ontology and how it leads us to a more politically helpful understanding of freedom. It follows that present concepts (present conditions on the use of words) may retain traces of their origins, for we may no longer remember why we first insisted that words be used in just this way, and therefore that, “Some of our philosophical problems about concepts are the result of their history” (p.37). Others will, however, be cheered by Hacking’s approach in these pieces. These styles of reasoning determine what counts as a candidate for truth-and-falsity in a given period. It is in the detail of such investigations that the exclusive disjunctions between real and nominal, natural and social will lose their grip on us. This explanation seems insufficient, if not inconsistent. In the previously unpublished introduction, also titled “Historical Ontology”, Hacking considers what such a discipline might be, both by explaining how Foucault’s and his writings exemplify it, and by distinguishing it from its cousins, “historical epistemology” and “historical meta-epistemology”, as well as from more august kin, such as “history”, “ontology”, and “epistemology” tout court. The importance of Michel Foucault--for the development of this theme, and for Hacking's own work in intellectual history--emerges in the following chapters, which place Hacking's classic essays on Foucault within the wider context of general reflections on historical methodology. Paperback ISBN: 9780804792646 The fundamental categories of the language at t prescribe the order of things at that point in history—they determine both its metaphysics and its logic, as categories always have. ISSN: 1538 - 1617 Robert Nichols's basic idea is an interesting one: viewing Foucault's "care of the self" as a successful historicizing of Heidegger's existential analytic of care ( Sorge) offers us a powerful … ", —Alan D. Schrift, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, "Robert Nichols makes a powerful case for reading the late Foucault in the light of Heidegger's conception of freedom. It is a set of techniques, which can be both linguistic and material, that make statements candidates for truth in the first place. Ebook ISBN: 9780804792714. These conditions are available to each human being because reason is a feature of what it is to be human. This … Major Works. Intellectual Background. Through close, scholarly engagement with primary texts, Robert Nichols develops original and demanding insights into the relationship between fundamental and historical ontology, modes of objectification and subjectification, and an ethopoetic conception of freedom. This moral will no doubt frustrate those philosophers impatient of such deliberate, Wittgensteinian ambiguity. . But not every human being is reconciled to these conditions, a predicament that gives rise to “self-imposed immaturit…