[7], With the Yamama pacified, Khalid marched northward toward Sasanian territory in Iraq (lower Mesopotamia). [4] In Jahiliyya era, Khalid b. Walid was a nobleman and a courageous fighter of Quraysh tribe. Having swallowed the story about the wife of Malik ibn Nuwayrah hook, line and sinker, they now cannot bear to think of Khalid ibn al Walid except in the vilest of terms. Khalid was called by Caliph Abu Bakr to explain the matter. 2 p. 164 (Dâr al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, reproduced from Hyderabad edition) [33] In 632, Khalid confronted Tulayha's forces at the Battle of Buzakha, during which the Tayy defected to the Muslims early in the battle. He was reassigned by Abu Bakr to command the Muslim armies in Syria and he led his men there on an unconventional march across a long, waterless stretch of the Syrian Desert, boosting his reputation as a military strategist. An expedition was immediately prepared to take punitive action [33] Khalid was Abu Bakr's third nominee to lead the campaign after his first two choices, the Qurayshites Zayd ibn al-Khattab and Abu Hudhayfa ibn Utba, refused the assignment. When arrested in November 632 AD, Malik was asked by Khalid ibn Walid about his crimes. Malik was a chief of some distinction; a warrior, noted for his generosity; and a famous poet. [141] No attending commanders voiced opposition, except for a Makhzumite who accused Umar of violating the military mandate given to Khalid by Muhammad. Christian Prince who lived in a castle there. His interrogation of Khâlid revealed that Khâlid had committed an error of judgement, and the insistence of Sayyidunâ ‘Umar t that Khâlid be dismissed was met by a resolute answer form Sayyidunâ Abû Bakr t : “I will not sheath the sword that was drawn by Allâh.”13 Like Rasûlullâh r did in the case of Banû Jadhîmah, Sayyidunâ Abû Bakr paid out blood money to Mâlik’s brother Mutammim, and ordered the released of all captives taken by Khâlid.13. [118] Modern research questions Abu Ubayda's arrival in Syria by the time of the siege. Khalid bin Walid ordered the execution of Malik ibn Nuwayra and after that he married his wife, Layla bint al-Minhal without waiting for iddah period. buried in 642 in Emesa, where he lived since his dismissal from military With the passage of time the incident of Mâlik ibn Nuwayrah became the object of the attention of certain unscrupulous transmitters of history. They find themselves unable to associate his name except with the concocted legend of the wife of Mâlik ibn Nuwayrah. During which is said to have collected few hairs of Muhammad, as a What is there in you which resembles that which they had? [160], According to Sayf ibn Umar, later in 638 Khalid was rumored to have lavishly distributed war spoils from his northern Syrian campaigns, including a sum to the Kindite nobleman al-Ash'ath ibn Qays. 2, Page no: 501-502. 6 p. 37 [146] Khalid's initial force of 500–800 men had swelled to as high as 10,000 as a result of tribesmen joining his army's ranks from the Iraqi front or Arabia and as high as 30,000–40,000 factoring in their families. 2, Page no: 501-502. of them apparently harboured no ill-will towards each other. [131] The Byzantines pursued the Muslims into their camp, where the Muslims had their camel herds hobbled to form a series of defensive perimeters from which the infantry could fight and which Byzantine cavalries could not easily penetrate. [38] As Tulayha appeared close to defeat the Banu Fazara section of the Ghatafan under their chief Uyayna ibn Hisn deserted the field, compelling Tulayha to flee for Syria. Khalid continued service as the key lieutenant of his successor Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah in the sieges of Homs and Aleppo and the Battle of Qinnasrin, all in 637–638, which collectively precipitated the retreat from Syria of imperial Byzantine troops under Emperor Heraclius. your destiny to be a 'martyr' but to die like a conqueror. [137] In Gil's view, Khalid's withdrawal before the army of Heraclius, the evacuation of Damascus and the counter-movement on the Yarmouk tributaries "are evidence of his excellent organising ability and his skill at manoeuvring on the battlefield". When Malik heard about Khalid ibn Walid's victories against powerful Arab tribes, he ordered his tribesmen not to engage the approaching Khalid ibn Walid in battle, to stay at home and hope for peace. [79] According to Shaban, it is unclear if Khalid requested or received Abu Bakr's sanction to raid Iraq or ignored objections by the caliph. [22][23] Khalid took command of the army following the deaths of the appointed commanders and, with considerable difficulty, oversaw a safe withdrawal of the Muslims. Also, so as to prove himself loyal to state of Madinah (the future Islamic empire), he collected the Tax and sent it to Madinah. Moreover, he was to be charged because he signed a pact with the self-proclaimed prophetess Sajah. [117] Khalid advanced,[117] possibly besting a Byzantine unit at the Marj al-Suffar plain before besieging the city. Abu’s-Safar says: Khâlid stayed in al-Hîrah at the house of the mother of the Banû Marâzibah. [139] Muir, C. H. Becker, Stratos and Philip K. Hitti have proposed that Khalid was ultimately dismissed because the Muslim gains in Syria in the aftermath of Yarmouk required the replacement of a military commander at the helm with a capable administrator such as Abu Ubayda. [1] When she came of age, she was pursued by many men, but rejected their advances. The persons who allegedly narrate the story appear here as Qâsim ibn Muhammad and ‘Amr ibn Shu‘ayb. Similarly, a few thousand of them defeated seven hundred thousand Romans, and a small number of Muslims overran the whole land of Iran. his hostility against Muhammad. and Uthman ibn Talha, who were also going to Khālid's incomparable talents". [159] According to al-Tabari, he was one of the witnesses of a letter of assurance by Umar to Patriarch Sophronius of Jerusalem guaranteeing the safety of the city's people and property. They accepted the invitation, but Khalid took all of them prisoners [2] envoy to the, Byzantine empire, with a letter inviting him A The incident of Mâlik ibn Nuwayrah is one of those cases which are frequently cited by Shî‘î propagandists whose first step in the direction of convincing and converting the Ahl as-Sunnah almost invariably assumes the form of an attempt to prove how innately corrupt and evil the Sahâbah were (na‘ûdhu billâh). 27. [33] The Muslim war efforts, in which Khalid played a vital part, secured Medina's dominance over the strong tribes of Arabia, which sought to diminish Islamic authority in the peninsula, and restored the nascent Muslim state's prestige.